Breast cancer is the most common aggressive cancer in women, and is the second leading cause of cancer death in women after lung cancer.
Significance of symptoms and screening are important ways of reducing risk.
Breast cancer can also affect men, but this article will focus on breast cancer in women.
Fast facts on breast cancer:
Here are some important points about breast cancer. There is more information in the main article.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women.
Symptoms include changes in a lump of the breast or thickness and skin or nipple.
Risk factors can be genetic, but some lifestyle factors such as alcohol consumption make it more likely to occur.
A range of treatments, including surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, is available.
Many breast lumps are not cancerous, but any woman who is worried about a lump or change should see the doctor.
The first signs of breast cancer are usually in the area of thick tissue in the breast or a bump in the breast or on the side.
The initial diagnosis of breast cancer increases the chance of recovery.
The initial diagnosis of breast cancer increases the chance of recovery.
Other symptoms include:
The breast or breast next to which does not change with the monthly cycle
Like an orange skin, pitting or redness of breast skin
A bang on one of the around or nipple
Discharge with a nipple, possibly blood-rich
A sunburn or inverted nipple
A change in size or shape of breast
Skin peeling, sliding or scaling on the breast or nipple
Most lumps are not cancerous, but women should have been checked by health care professionals.
Cancer is organized according to the size of the tumor and whether it has spread in the lymph nodes or other parts of the body.
There are different ways to organize breast cancer. One way is from steps 0 to 4, but they can be divided into smaller steps.
Stage 0: Due to Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS), the cells are confined within a tube and the surrounding tissues are not attacked.
Stage 1: At the beginning of this stage, the tumor is up to 2 cm (cm) and no lymph nodes are affected.
Stage 2: The tumor is 2 cm and it has started to spread in nearby nodes.
Stage 3: The tumor is up to 5 cm and it can spread to some lymph nodes.
Stage 4: The cancer has spread to distant organs, especially bones, liver, brain, or lungs.
After puberty, a woman has fat in her breast, connective tissue, and thousands of lobules, small glands producing milk for breastfeeding. Small tubes, or tubules, move the milk towards the nipple.
In cancer, cells of the body multiply arbitrarily. This is the excessive cell growth which causes cancer.
Breast cancer usually starts in the internal layer of milk ducts or lobules, which supplies them with milk. From there, it can spread to other parts of the body.
The exact reason remains unclear, but some risk factors make it more likely. Some of these are preventable.
Risk increases with age. In 20 years, the chance of developing breast cancer in the next decade is 0.6 percent. By the age of 70, this figure rises to 3.84 percent.
If a close relative has breast cancer, the risk is high.
Women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes hold high risk of developing breast cancer, ovarian cancer or both. These genes can be inherited. TP53 is another genes linked to the risk of a major breast cancer.
3. History of breast cancer or breast lump
The women who had breast cancer are likely to be again, who have no history of the disease.
After some kind of benign, or non-cancerous breast lump, the likelihood of the development of cancer increases later.
4. Dense Breast Tissue
High density breast tissue is more likely to develop breast cancer.
5. Estrogen Exposure and Breastfeeding
Contact with estrogen for a long time increases the risk of breast cancer.
This may be due to the start of the earlier period or the median after entry into the menopause. Between these times, levels of estrogen are high.
Breastfeeding, especially for more than 1 year, appears to reduce the likelihood of breast cancer development, possibly after the pregnancy decreases exposure to estrogen.
6. Body weight
After menopause, there may be overweight women or obesity, possibly high risk of developing breast cancer due to high levels of estrogen. High sugar consumption can also be a factor.
7. Alcohol consumption
A high rate of regular alcohol consumption appears to play a role. Studies have shown that women who consume more than 3 beverages have 1.5 times more risk.
8. Radiation Exposure
Undergoing radiation treatment for non-cancerous cancer can increase the risk of breast cancer later in life.
9. Hormonal Remedies
Due to increased levels of estrogen, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and oral birth control pills are linked to breast cancer.
10. Business Hazards
In 2012, researchers concluded that exposure to certain cancers and endocrine disruptions, for example, can be linked to breast cancer, in the workplace.
In 2007, scientists suggested that a change in the night of night may increase the risk of breast cancer, but in recent research it has been concluded that it is impossible.
Cosmetic implants and breast cancer survival
Women with cosmetic breast implants diagnosed with breast cancer have a major risk of dying from disease and 25 percent more chance of being diagnosed in later stages compared to women without transplantation.
This can be caused by cancer masking implants during screening, or because the implants bring changes in the breast tissue. Need more research
Breast cancer can be:
- Ductal carcinoma: This begins in the milk duct and is the most common type.
- Lobular carcinoma: This starts in the lobules.
Invasive breast cancer is when the cancer cells break out from inside the lobules or ducts and invade nearby tissue, increasing the chance of spreading to other parts of the body.
Non-invasive breast cancer is when the cancer is still inside its place of origin and has not broken out. However, these cells can eventually develop into invasive breast cancer.
Breast cancer can also affect men, but it is less common in men than in women.
A diagnosis often occurs as the result of routine screening, or when a woman approaches her doctor after detecting symptoms.
Some diagnostic tests and procedures help to confirm a diagnosis.
The physician will check the patient’s breasts for lumps and other symptoms.
The patient will be asked to sit or stand with her arms in different positions, such as above her head and by her sides.
A mammogram is a type of x-ray commonly used for initial breast cancer screening. It produces images that can help detect any lumps or abnormalities.
A suspicious result can be followed up by further diagnosis. However, mammography sometimes shows up a suspicious area that is not cancer. This can lead to unnecessary stress and sometimes interventions.
An ultrasound scan can help differentiate between a solid mass or a fluid-filled cyst.
An MRI scan involves injecting a dye into the patient, so find out how far the cancer has spread.
A sample of tissue is surgically removed for laboratory analysis. This can show whether the cells are cancerous, and, if so, which type of cancer it is, including whether or not the cancer is hormone-sensitive.
Diagnosis also involves staging the cancer, to establish:
- the size of a tumor
- how far it has spread
- whether it is invasive or non-invasive
- whether it has metastasized, or spread to other parts of the body
Staging will affect the chances of recovery and will help decide on the best treatment options.
Treatment will depend on:
Chemotherapy can be an option for breast cancer.
Chemotherapy can be an option for breast cancer.
Type of breast cancer
Patient age, holistic health, and priorities
The main options include:
Biological therapy, or targeted drug therapy
Factors affecting the choice include cancer phase, other medical conditions and personal preference.
If surgery is required, then the option will depend on the diagnosis and the person.
Lumpectomy: A small margin of tumor removal and healthy tissue around it can help prevent the spread of cancer. This may be an option if the tumor is small and it is easy to separate from the surrounding tissues.
Mastectomy: Simple mastectomy involves removing lobules, ducts, fatty tissue, nipples, erola, and some skin. Radical mastectomy removes muscles from the wall of the chest and also removes lymph nodes along the side.
Sentinel node biopsy: The removal of a lymph node can cause cancer, because if breast cancer reaches a lymph node, it can spread further through the lymphatic system in other parts of the body.
Axilary lymph node dissection: If there are cancer cells on the node called the Sandin node, then the surgeon can recommend removing many breed nodes next to prevent the spread of the disease.
Reconstruction: After breast surgery, rebuilding can re-breed the breast so that it looks like the other breast. It can be done as a mastectomy, or at the same time at a later time. The surgeon may use breast implants or tissue from the patient’s second part of the body.
The control dose of radiation is targeted on the tumor to destroy cancer cells. It is used one month after surgery with chemotherapy, it can kill any remaining cancer cells.
Each session lasts for a few minutes, and the patient may need three to five sessions per week for 3 to 6 weeks, depending on the target and range of cancer.
The type of breast cancer will determine which type of radiation therapy, if any, is most appropriate.
Adverse effects include fatigue, limpidema, dark skin of the breast, and breast skin irritation.
Drugs known as cytotoxic drugs can be used to kill cancerous cells if there is a high risk of recurrence or dilation. It is called as auxiliary chemotherapy.
If tumor is large, chemotherapy can be managed before surgery to reduce tumor and make it easier to remove. It is called neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Chemotherapy can also cure cancer, which is metastasized, or spread to other parts of the body, and this can reduce some symptoms, especially in the later stages.
It can be used to reduce estrogen production, because estrogen can stimulate the development of some breast cancers.
Adverse effects include nausea, vomiting, lack of appetite, fatigue, pain of mouth, hair loss, and a little more sensitivity to infection. Medicines can help in controlling many of these.
Hormonal-blocking therapy is used to prevent recurrence in hormonal-sensitive breast cancer. These are often known as estrogen receptive (ER) positive and progesterone receptor (PR) positive cancers.
After surgery, hormonal therapy is usually used, but it can sometimes be used to reduce tumors.
This may be the only option for patients who can not undergo surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
After surgery, usually the effects last for 5 years. Treatment will not have any effect on cancer which is not sensitive to hormones.
Ovarian ablation or suppression
To suppress the ovaries, a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist (LHRHA) drug called Gosselin
Hormone treatment can affect the fertility of the future of the woman.
Targeted medicines destroy specific types of breast cancer Examples include trastzumab (herpesptin), lapatinib (tycrub), and bivasizumab (avastin). These drugs are used for various purposes.
There may be serious adverse effects for the treatment of breast and other cancers.
The patient should discuss ways to reduce the negative effects on taking into account the risks and treatments involved with the doctor.
With treatment, a woman who receives the diagnosis of breast cancer in phase 0 or stage 1, has about 100 percent chance of survival for a minimum of five years.
If the diagnosis is made on stage 4, then the chance of surviving for 5 years is about 22 percent.
Regular screening and screening can help detect symptoms. Women should discuss their options with the doctor.
There is no sure way to stop breast cancer, but some lifestyle decisions can reduce the risk of breast and other types of cancer.
Avoiding excess alcohol consumption
After a healthy diet with fresh fruits and vegetables
Maintaining a Healthy Body Mass Index (BMI)
Women should think carefully about their options for breastfeeding and the use of HRT after menopause, because they can affect the risk.
Preventive surgery is an option at high risk for women.
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