Lung Cancer Awareness Month : Symptoms and Diagnosis Of Lung Cancer
Lung cancer is an uncontrolled development of abnormal cells which starts in one or both lungs; Generally in those cells which underline the wind paths. Unusual cells do not develop in healthy lung tissues, they are rapidly split and form tumors.
Since the tumors become larger and more myriad, they weaken the ability to provide blood flow to the lungs with oxygen. Tumors that live in a single place and do not appear to spread are known as “benign tumors”.
Malignant tumors, more dangerous, spread through blood circulation or lymphatic system to other parts of the body. Metastasis spreads cancer to other parts of the body beyond its own origins. When cancer spreads, it is very difficult to successfully treat.
The primary lung cancer emerges in the lungs, whereas secondary lung cancer starts somewhere else in the body, metastases and reaches the lungs. They are considered different types of cancer and they are not treated in the same way.
According to the National Cancer Institute, by the end of 2015, 221,200 new lung cancer cases and 158,040 lung cancer deaths occurred .
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) 7.6 million deaths worldwide are due to cancer every year; Cancer represents 13% of all global deaths. As seen below, lung cancer is by far the number one cancer killer.
Total deaths worldwide due to cancer every year
Lung cancer – 1,370,000 deaths
Stomach cancer – 736,000 deaths
Liver cancer – 695,000 deaths
Colorectal cancer – 608,000 deaths
Breast cancer – 458,000 deaths
Cervical cancer – 275,000 deaths
The American Cancer Society says today that all new diagnosis of lung cancer in the United States today is 14% of cancers. It says that annually, more patients die from lung cancer jointly with more prostate, breast and colon cancer (in the United States).
The risk of lifetime of an American person developing lung cancer is 1 in 13; The risk for a woman is 1 in 16. These risk figures are for all American adults including smokers, former smokers and smokers. The risk of regular smokers is dramatically high.
Most lung cancer patients are more than 60 years of age when diagnosed. Lung cancer takes many years to reach such a level where the symptoms are felt and the victim decides to seek medical help.
The rate of female lung cancer has increased rapidly.
Scientists of King’s College London reported in October 2012, in the next three decades, female lung cancer men will be twenty-five times faster than lung cancer.
Scientists estimate that in the UK, lung cancer death will reach 95,000 annually in 2040, an increase of 26,000 to 350% in 2010. The death of male annual lung cancer in the same period will increase 8% to 42,000 in 2040, which was 39,000 in 2010.
The authors of the report say that lung cancer will continue to be the largest cancer killer in the next thirty years. In 2010, many people will live with lung cancer compared to 2010. The main reason for the increase will be long life – the more you are old, the greater the risk of cancer is with your lung cancer.
How is lung cancer classified?
Lung cancer can be broadly classified into two main types, depending on the presence of cancer under the microscope: non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) account for 80% of lung cancer, while small cell lung cancer account for the remaining 20%.
NSCLC can be divided into four different types, each with different treatment options:
Squamous cell carcinoma or epidermoid carcinoma. The most common type of NSCLC and lung cancer among the most common types of men, in the form of squamous cell carcinoma forms in the layer of bronchial tubes.
Adenocarcinoma As the most common type of lung cancer in women and non-smokers, adenocarcinoma forms in the mucous-producing glands of the lungs.
Bronchioalveolar carcinoma This type of lung cancer is a rare type of adenocarcinoma that occurs near the lung air cells.
Large cell undifferentiated carcinoma. Large-cell undefended cancersoma form near rapidly growing cancers, outer edges or lungs surfaces.
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is characterized by small cells which quickly multiply and make large tumors that travel throughout the body. Almost all cases of SCLC are due to smoking.
What is the cause of cancer?
Cancer is ultimately the result of cells that grow uncontrollably and do not die. Normal cells in the body follow the systematic path of growth, division and death. Programmed cell death is called apoptosis, and when the procedure breaks down, cancer begins to form. Unlike regular cells, cancer cells do not experience programmatic death and continue to grow and split instead. It leads to the mass of abnormal cells which exits from control.
Lung cancer occurs when the gene mutation of the lung cell is unable to correct the damage to the cell DNA and is unable to commit suicide. There can be mutations for several reasons. Most lung cancer is the result of respiratory infections of carcinogenic substances.
Carcinogen is a category of substances that are directly responsible for damaging DNA, promoting or helping the cancer. All examples of compound cancers in gamma and X-rays, sun, and car exhaust fumes such as tobacco, asbestos, arsenic, radiation are examples. When our bodies come in contact with carcinogens, free radicals are formed which try to steal electrons from other molecules in the body. They damage free radical cells and affect their ability to work and divide normally.
Approximately 87% of lung cancer related to smoking and cancerous people breathe in tobacco smoke. The exposure to second-hand smoke can also damage cells so that they can form cancerous forms.
Cancer can be the result of a genetic bias, which is inherited from family members. It is possible to be born with some genetic mutation or a mistake in a gene that makes later life more likely than a statistical method of developing cancer. Genetic bias either directly cause lung cancer or exposure to some environmental factors, increases the likelihood of developing lung cancer.
How does lung cancer develop? – video
A short video explaining how lung cancer develops. Video by eHow.
Symptoms of lung cancer
The symptoms of cancer are quite different and depending on how cancer is located, where it has spread, and how big the tumor is. The symptoms of lung cancer can take many years to occur, usually the disease is in an advanced stage.
Many symptoms of lung cancer affect the chest and airways. Contains:
Persistent or severe cough
Backache chest pain, or cough back
Mucosa changes in the color of the lower airway (sperm)
Difficulty breathing and difficulty swallowing
Noise of voice
Harsh (breather) during breathing
Chronic bronchitis or pneumonia
Blood in coughing blood, or inclination
If lung cancer spreads, or metastasize, additional symptoms can present themselves in the new affected area. Swelling or extended lymph nodes are common and are likely to be present soon. If cancer spreads in the brain, patients may experience extreme, headaches or seizures. In addition, the liver may be large and jaundice and bones can be painful, brittle and broken. It is also possible to infect adrenal glands for cancer, which results in changes in hormonal levels.
Since lung cancer cells spread and use more energy in the body, it is possible to present such symptoms that can be associated with many other diseases. Contains:
Ambiguous weight loss
Pain in joints or bones
Problems with brain function and memory
Swelling in the neck or face
Hemorrhoids and blood clots
How is the diagnosis of lung cancer and is done?
In order to diagnose lung cancer therapists use information manifested by symptoms as well as many other processes. Common imaging techniques include chest x-ray, bronchoscopy (a thin tube with a camera at one end), CT scan, MRI scan, and PET scan.
Doctors will also analyze blood in physical examination, a chest examination, and sperm. All these procedures have been designed to detect where the tumor is located and the additional organs can be affected by it.
Although the above diagnostic techniques provided important information, the only complete way to diagnose lung cancer is to remove cancer cells and see them under the microscope. This process is called biopsy. If biopsy confirms lung cancer then the pathologist will determine whether this is a non-small cell lung cancer or small cell lung cancer.
After diagnosis, an oncologist will determine the stage of cancer by detecting how far the cancer has spread. The phase determines which options will be available for treatment and give information about the forecast. The most common cancer staging method is called TNM system. T (1-4) indicates the size and direct limit of primary tumor, N (0-3) indicates the degree on which the cancer has spread to the nearby lymph nodes, and M (0-1) indicates Does the cancer be metastasized or not in the body for other organs? A small tumor which does not spread in the lymph nodes or distant parts can be arranged for example (T1, N, M.).
For non-small cell lung cancer, TNM leads to a simple classification of the details phases. These steps have been labeled from I to IV, where the lower numbers indicate the first stage where the cancer has decreased. More specifically:
Stage I occurs when the tumor is found only in one lung and in any lymph nodes.
Phase II occurs when the cancer spreads in the lymph nodes around infected lungs.
Stage III a occurs when the trachea, chest wall and the spread of lymph nodes around the diaphragm, similar to cancer-infected lungs.
Stage III b occurs when the cancer has spread to other lungs or lymph nodes in the neck.
Stage IV occurs when the cancer spreads to the rest of the body and other parts of the lungs.
Small cell lung cancer has two phases: limited or broad. In a limited stage, the tumor is present in a lung and near lymph nodes. In broad stages, the tumor has infected other lungs along with other organs in the body.
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